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Detailed, exact statement of the functional requirements and particulars for something. Standards are related to guidelines, recommendations for the learning technology. They provide specification that address good practices. For a specification to reach the status of an accredited standard, it must receive an approval from an accrediting agency. [1]

Standards are the levels of performance typically expressed as a rating or grade on a given criterion (e.g. a "B" grade may be the standard for admission to a graduate programme). Standards are expressed in a cut score but can also be non-quantitative e.g. by providing an exemplar of acceptable performance. Standards can be absolute or relative and can be used in either criterion referenced or norm referenced contexts( Mathison:2005). A standard need not be a single level of performance but may involve multiple levels of performance such as excellent, acceptable, unacceptable.[2]


  1. (18 March 2008)
  2. Mathison, Sandra. Encyclopaedia of Evaluation, pp 399, Ed. University of British Columbia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005.