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Theory of learning that suggests that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When a person encounters something new, she/he reconciles it with previous ideas and experience, at times changing beliefs, or discarding the new information as irrelevant. In any case, the learner is an active creator of his/her own knowledge. To do this, he/she must ask questions, explore, and assess what is already known. Learners and trainers should work together to construct meanings, rather than having these meanings pre-determined or prescribed in advance for the learner by the instructor. These are the basic assumptions of constructivism:
  1. Knowledge is constructed, not transmitted.
  2. Knowledge is embedded in activity.
  3. Knowledge is anchored in and indexed by the context in which the learning activity occurs.
  4. Meaning is in the mind of the knower.
  5. Meaning making is prompted by a problem, question, confusion, disagreement, or dissonance and thus involves personal ownership of that problem. [1]


  1. (7 March 2008), (7 March 2008), Designing Successful E-Learning, Allen’s M, 2007