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Refers to a particular level of performance on a scale. The performance level may define a ‘benchmark’ that represents an exemplary standard in a programme or project. Organizations use benchmarking to determine gaps or limitations in their performance compared to their peers. In its most simplified form therefore, benchmarking could be described as improving performance by learning from others with the objective of doing better. Benchmarking can also be a collaborative exercise with like-minded organizations seeking to identify common and important success indicators.[1][2][3]


  1. Australian Curriculum Assessment and Certification Authorities. Standards and Benchmarking, 2010.
  2. University of Oxford. The Learning Needs Analysis Toolkit, 2010.
  3. Mathison, Sandra. Encyclopaedia of Evaluation. Ed. University of British Columbia, pp 31. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005.